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How Many Sides Does a Square Have?




A square is one of the most basic and recognizable shapes in geometry. It is a polygon with four equal sides and four equal angles. But have you ever wondered why a square has exactly four sides? In this article, we will explore the concept of a square, its properties, and the reasons behind its unique characteristics.

The Definition of a Square

Before we delve into the number of sides a square has, let’s first establish what a square is. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a square is defined as “a four-sided polygon that has four right angles and four congruent sides.”

From this definition, we can gather two important properties of a square:

  • A square has four sides.
  • All four sides of a square are equal in length.

The Geometry of a Square

Now that we understand the basic definition of a square, let’s explore its geometry in more detail. A square is a special type of rectangle, which is itself a special type of parallelogram. However, what sets a square apart from other rectangles and parallelograms is its unique combination of properties.

Here are some key characteristics of a square:

  • Equal sides: As mentioned earlier, all four sides of a square are equal in length. This property distinguishes a square from other quadrilaterals, such as rectangles or rhombuses, which may have different side lengths.
  • Right angles: A square has four right angles, meaning each angle measures exactly 90 degrees. This property is shared with rectangles, but not with other quadrilaterals like parallelograms or trapezoids.
  • Diagonals: The diagonals of a square are congruent and bisect each other at right angles. This means that the diagonals divide the square into four congruent right triangles.
  • Symmetry: A square possesses rotational symmetry of order 4, meaning it looks the same after a 90-degree rotation. This property makes squares popular in art, design, and architecture.

Why Does a Square Have Four Sides?

Now that we have explored the properties of a square, let’s address the question at hand: why does a square have exactly four sides?

The answer lies in the definition of a polygon. A polygon is a closed figure with straight sides. The word “polygon” is derived from the Greek words “poly,” meaning “many,” and “gonia,” meaning “angle.” Therefore, a polygon must have multiple angles.

A square, being a polygon, must have at least three sides to form a closed figure. However, a triangle does not satisfy the definition of a square, as it does not have four equal sides or four right angles. Therefore, a square requires a minimum of four sides to meet the criteria of a polygon and possess its unique properties.

Real-World Examples of Squares

Squares are not just abstract mathematical concepts; they have practical applications in various fields. Let’s explore some real-world examples of squares:

  • Tiles: Many flooring and wall tiles are square-shaped. The uniformity and symmetry of squares make them an ideal choice for creating visually appealing patterns.
  • Chessboard: A chessboard is a square grid consisting of 64 squares. The alternating colors of the squares create a visually pleasing pattern and aid in gameplay.
  • Windows: Some windows, particularly those with a modern design, are square-shaped. The simplicity and clean lines of squares make them a popular choice in architecture.
  • Computer screens: The majority of computer screens have a square or rectangular shape. This aspect ratio allows for efficient display of digital content.


In conclusion, a square is a four-sided polygon with four equal sides and four right angles. Its unique combination of properties, such as equal sides and right angles, distinguishes it from other quadrilaterals. A square has exactly four sides because it must meet the criteria of a polygon, which requires multiple angles. Squares have practical applications in various fields, including architecture, design, and mathematics.


1. Can a square have more than four sides?

No, a square cannot have more than four sides. By definition, a square is a four-sided polygon.

2. What is the formula to calculate the perimeter of a square?

The formula to calculate the perimeter of a square is P = 4s, where P represents the perimeter and s represents the length of one side.

3. Are all squares rectangles?

Yes, all squares are rectangles, but not all rectangles are squares. A square is a special type of rectangle with equal sides.

4. Can a square have diagonals of different lengths?

No, the diagonals of a square are always congruent, meaning they have the same length.

5. What is the relationship between a square and a cube?

A square is a two-dimensional shape, while a cube is a three-dimensional shape. A cube is composed of six square faces.

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